Civil Engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, biomechanics, nanotechnology, transportation engineering, earth science, atmospheric sciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.
Civil Engineers can find job in Government departments, private and public sector industries, research and teaching institutions etc. Job opportunities for civil engineers are expected to increase as fast as the average for all jobs, although the construction industry is vulnerable to fluctuations in the economy.
Civil engineers will always be needed to maintain and repair existing facilities and structures and to construct new ones. After doing B.Tech, one can look for jobs in road projects, building work, consultancy firms, quality testing laboratories or housing societies. The experts say there is a high demand for experienced civil engineers in developed countries.
Civil engineers are employed in all the major construction projects carried out by the state or central government, the railways, private construction companies, military, engineering services, consultancy services etc. Civil engineering graduates can also go in for research and take up teaching or they can open their own independent consultancy services.
There are various branches of civil engineering: geotechnical & engineering geology, transportation, structural, hydraulics & hydrology and environmental engineering.
The term civil engineering was introduced from military engineering(which is intended to support offensive, defensive or logistical operations in time of war) to differentiate the peacetime non-military form of engineering intended to improve the natural and built environment for the benefit of mankind.
The role of a Civil Engineer.
A civil engineer has to conceive, plan, estimate, get approval, create and maintain all civil engineering
activities. Civil engineer has very important role in the development of the following infrastructure:
(i) Measure and map the earth’s surface.
(ii) Plan new townships and extension of existing towns.
(iii) Build the suitable structures for the rural and urban areas for various utilities.
(iv) Build tanks and dams to exploit water resources.
(v) Build river navigation and flood control projects.
(vi) Build canals and distributaries to take water to agricultural fields.
(vii) Purify and supply water to the needy areas like houses, schools, offices etc.
(viii) Provide and maintain communication systems like roads, railways, harbours and airports.
(ix) Devise systems for control and efficient flow of traffic.
(x) Provide and maintain solid and waste water disposal system.
(xi) Monitor land, water and air pollution and take measures to control them. Fast growing
industrialisation has put heavy responsibilities on civil engineers to preserve and protect environment.